Romans 10

Having thoroughly proven man’s condemnation under God’s law and God’s provision of salvation for mankind Paul, in chapters 9, 10 and 11 will deal with the Jew and their present condition and their future in God’s plan. 

10:1-4

For whom is Paul praying for?

    The Jews; his kin because they are still lost. 

And to whom is he praying to?

    God. 

And what is the origin of Paul’s prayer?

    His heart and its desire. 

And what is the goal of his heart’s prayer?

    “that they may be saved.” 

Can we say the same as Paul? That we pray from the heart? Or is prayer a chore to us?

    I often find it easy to pray for myself; only concerning my blessings. But even the Lord taught us otherwise; for, “hallowed be your name, your Kingdom come” comes before “give us our daily bread.” 

So how do we pray from the heart for others? 

    Obviously, we love them from the heart and therefore pray for them. 

But how do I grow to love someone? 

    Perhaps it\’s a closed circuit; we love them and therefore pray for them. Or we pray for them and therefore love them.

    The more you love; the more you pray. The more you pray; the more you love. 

What are some other ways we grow to love someone? 

    Knowing the love of God toward you,

    Denying yourself

    Recognizing their current spiritual state; under wrath or mercy. 

You’ll notice where this text is located; immediately after the teaching of the doctrine of election, predestination, and sovereign grace. The application is obvious; sovereign election leads us to pray for the lost. 

The question now is; does election lead us to pray for the lost? 

    Knowing that God is sovereign leads us to trust in Him for our salvation and those around us as well according to His plan of salvation. As our view of God increases so does our prayer life. 

10:2

Paul, here, states that the Jews were zealous for God not according to personal intimacy, or knowledge as he puts it. 

In 10:3 he tells us why and how they were zealous.

10:3

Paul tells us 3 things that the Jews did that caused them to not believe; what are those things? 

Ignorant of the righteousness of God

Sought to establish their own righteousness 

Unsubmissive too God’s righteousness. 

    So clearly righteousness has a lot to do with this verse. What is the righteousness that Paul is talking about here?

    The righteousness given to us by God in Christ. 

So these are the things that those outside of Christ are doing. 

Given this verse, what would you say are the things we, those in Christ, should be doing?

Knowing, personally, the righteousness of God

Seeking the previously established righteousness of God

Submit to God’s righteousness. 

    We know, we seek, we submit to Christ. 

10:4

One interpretation is that Christ is the goal/purpose of the law; another is that for believers, Christ terminates any pursuit of the law in order to establish their own righteousness by it. These two views are not mutually exclusive and together make a good sense of Paul’s argument. 

10:5-13

10:5

What must one do to have life?

    Obey the commandments of God. As we know from previous studies, no one was fully able to keep all the commands of God and thus none truly life, or righteousness, according to the law. 

    Paul in chapter 9 focused on God’s sovereignty in salvation, here in chapter 10 he focuses on man’s responsibility to the gospel. 

    Paul starts his gospel presentation to the Jew, like any good gospel presentation, by showing the condemnation of man. 

10:6-7

Here, Paul moves to showing the accessibility of Christ to all. 

    These are a confusing set of verses that I’m not 100% able to understand. 

    However, here is what we are to get out of them, 

    “Paul quoted Moses on both sides of the issue. In Lv 18:5 obedience to the law brings life, no one can keep the law and gain righteousness (Paul implied 10:6). Faith-based righteousness is from Christ. He is accessible. He died for us and was raised from the dead. Moses pointed out that God’s revelation was accessible and Paul quoted his words to show that Christ is accessible.” (CSB Study Note, 10:5-7). 

10:8

What is this “word of faith” that’s proclaimed?

    Given 10:17 I think the \”word of faith\” and the \”word of Christ\” are the same thing; we proclaim faith in Christ. 

10:9

What is necessary for justification?

    Belief and confession in the Lord Jesus.

What does it mean to believe?

    Believe: Too personally know and submit to the word/revelation of God. 

What does it mean to confess?

    Confess: Too personally know and submit and actively live the word/revelation of God. 

What comes first confession or belief?

    The belief of heart then the action of the body; for the mouth speaks what the heart is full of. How can someone speak of that which they do not know or possess? 

What does this verse call us to believe in?

    “that God raised Him from the dead” the resurrection of Christ by God. 

And what’s so important about the resurrection that that is what we are called to believe in?

    Perhaps because the Gospel is wrapped up in the resurrection of Christ by God; there we see the completion of Christ’s work, the vindication of Christ by God, and the power of God toward those who believe. 

What are we called on to confess?

    “Jesus is Lord”. 

Which means what?

    “Lord”= Supreme sovereign overall; including over Caesar. This phrase, this outward living, put a lot of Christians to death. Thus, living this faith is no small, trivial thing; it is still a life and death matter. While their struggle was physical ours is spiritual; if we fail to live this faith we face spiritual death; but if we continue to live it we have true eternal life. 

    “confess with your mouth” and “believe in your heart” That is external and the internal. This faith is internal that always results in external action; this faith cannot remain hidden; even in the face of death for “what shall separate us from the love of Christ?” (Romans 8:35).

10:11

What does it mean to believe with the heart?

    To believe with all of you and to believe sincerely. 

And why will no believer but put to shame?

    Our belief will not disappoint us; we have a secure hope in God. 

10:12

What are these “riches” that are bestowed upon us?

    According to 10:13 Salvation from God; in 10:12 I think one of those rich is family/brotherhood/the Church, as well as the continual receiving of us into the Father’s arms (with the “calling” part in 10:12). 

    So in our belief, we gain salvation from God, adoption into the family of God, and acceptance of God.

10:13

What does it mean to call on “the name of the Lord”? 

    To call, to plea, for the Lord and all that He is; IE all of His attributes.  

Why will those who call upon the Lord be saved?

    Because God is just and will keep His word. “All that the Father gives Me will come to Me, and the one who comes to Me I will certainly not cast out.” (John 6:37). 

    Moreover, it is the Lord who causes the call in us; it is only through His renewal of our hearts/wills that we call on Him. If we call on Him then He is already at work within us and we have already been made alive through Him. 

10:14-21

10:14-15

    If Romans 8:29 was the divine order of salvation then here we have, what we could call, the human order of salvation. Paul here gives an analysis of what it involves when anyone calls on the name of the Lord to be saved. 

“How then will they call on Him in whom they have not believed?” 

What’s needed to call upon the Lord? 

    Belief. And the Lord causes our belief in Him. 

So what are the links in our silver chain of belief here?

    Sending (10:15), Proclaiming/Preaching (10:15), Hearing (10:14), Believing (10:14), Calling (10:14).

Who’s power does this silver chain rely on? 

    God’s. 

    His power is clearly seen in all of these 5 parts; He sends us, His word has its own power to get into the ear and into the heart to renew it for belief and then calling. 

If you had someone right in front of you right now and you could give them the gospel; what would you say?

    [Let them answer, follow up as needed]

And what makes the preacher\’s feet beautiful?

    The content of the message and the joy/love of the messenger. 

10:16

    In the forthcoming verses, Paul will show us that the condition described in our “silver chain” had been met for Israel. 

    The gospel message was proclaimed throughout the Roman Empire. 

    The Jews heard but did not believe. The Gentiles heard too, and many embraced it. 

    Paul’s citations show that the Gentile conversion was predicted in the OT. 

How does one “obey the Gospel”?

    The good news is not only a gracious offer but a command to believe and repent. 

    And Paul quotes Isa. 53:1 where Isaiah is describing the substitutionary death of Christ; which is the good news of the gospel. 

10:17

What is “the word of Christ”?

    It is the word, message, about Christ and from Christ. 

    Christ is the central focus of the Gospel and through the power of His word comes faith. 

10:18

    Paul cited this quotation from the LXX of Ps. 19:4 to show that even David understood that God’s revelation of Himself has reached the whole earth. Paul does this to answer any detractors who would claim that the Jews did not hear and thus obey; even David knew this was false. 

10:19

What say you, did Israel understand the gospel?

    No. They heard but did not believe. Israel was ignorant of the salvation truth contained in her own Scriptures, including that the Gospel would reach the Gentiles as Paul proves here in quoting Deut. 32:21 and Isaiah 65:1-2.

10:21

    As throughout her history, Israel once again had contradicted the word of God-this time it was the truth of the Gospel. 

According to this verse, how long had God been patient with Israel?

    All-day long; God has been dealing with and patient with these people for a long time. 

Still according to this verse what did God do while dealing with these disobedient people?

    Held out His hand. He continually served them. 

    Likewise with us, when we continually deal with a brother, wayward or hard to love regardless, we continue to serve them in the hope that they will come back to, or continue to mature in the faith that was brought with the price of Christ’s death. 

Keep all this in mind for next week as we’ll look at God’s future plan for Israel.  

#RomansBibleStudy

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